The skin or hide taken from large animals is generally too thick for most uses so it is split into two or even three layers, in simple terms the top split being the outside of the skin is comprised of densely compacted fibres as you reach the back of a skin the fibres become much less dense. The Top split has its own natural surface and is used for the quality jackets, coats, vests and pants, gloves, protective wear and for many other uses.
Leather skin or hide of animals is cured by tanning to prevent decay and to impart flexibility and toughness. Prehistoric and primitive peoples preserved pelts with grease and smoke and used them chiefly for shoes, garments, coverings and other purposes. Today pelts are prepared for tanning by dehairing, usually with lime, followed by fleshing and cleaning. After tanning, leather is generally treated with fats to assure pliability. The practice of shaving leather to the required thickness was abandoned early in the 18th century until the invention of a machine that split the tanned leather into a flesh layer and a grain “hair-side” layer. Characteristic grains may be brought out by rubbing, or may be imitated by embossing. Finishes include glazing, a high glaze being achieved by rolling with glass cylinders; coloring with stains or dyes; enameling or lacquering as for patent leather; and sueding, buffing with emery or carborundum wheels to raise a nap, usually on the flesh side.
Leather has been used as clothing since the earliest days of human existence. Prehistoric people wrapped animal skins around their bodies for warmth. During the Stone Age, garments were held together with leather straps that had been threaded through holes punched in the hide with crude implements made of stone. The hides were stiff and did not last long before putrefaction made them unwearable. Later, people learned to soften the hides by rubbing them with animal fat and used stones to clean the animal cells from the skins. It is also possible that in trying to dye the skins with various substances, early people discovered further preservation methods.
Preservation methods have varied over the centuries. Hides have been smoked, salted, soaked, rubbed with animal dung, beaten, and dragged over sharp sticks. Prehistoric people and some modern Eskimos have even resorted to chewing the skins to remove hair, pieces of flesh, and ultimately, to soften the leather. In some cultures, the skins were sprinkled with talc and flour to replace the natural oils. Women's leather garments were often doused with perfumes. Although leather was a valuable trade commodity, the tanning work was dirty and odorous, and leather workers were usually relegated to the outskirts of town. In the 19th century, machines were developed to perform these processes and an American chemist developed a tanning method using chromium salts that cut the processing time from weeks or months to just a few hours.
Antelope, lambskin, sheepskin, and cowhide are the hides most commonly used to make leather jackets, coats, trousers and other garments and clothing. As soon as the skin is removed from the animal at the meat processing plant, it is refrigerated, salted, or packed in barrels of brine. It is then sent to the tannery where the skins undergo a series of processes designed to preserve and soften the hides. The work performed at the tannery is of utmost importance to insure that the resulting garment is of high quality.
Leather is used for men, women and children casual garments, motorcycle and motorbike clothing like suits, coats, jackets, vest, pants, trousers, gloves, boots, protective wear, off road gear, kart racing driving suit, luggage, performance apparel etc.
Leather Preparation Process:
*Trimming and cleaning
The skins are trimmed and sorted according to size, weight, and thickness. It is necessary to remove any remaining proteins that could stimulate the growth of bacteria. To this end, the skins are soaked in revolving drums filled with water, bactericides, and detergents. Hair is removed with the application of chemical sprays or lime solutions. A scudding machine fitted with dull blades scrapes off any excess hair. Another round of washing (de-liming) removes these chemicals before the hides are soaked in an acid solution and then bated, an enzyme treatment to further remove the skins' collagens. Finally, the hides are pickled with salt and sulfuric acid.
The hides undergo one of three types of tanning.
- Vegetable tanning
- Mineral tanning
- Oil tanning
After the skins have been tanned, they are washed once again and wrung out thoroughly. Then the skins are passed under a band knife, which cuts the skins to a uniform thickness, and they are carried to drying tunnels. Usually, the skins are stretched on frames to prevent shrinkage during the drying stage. To combat the stiffness that drying produces, the hides are sprayed with water and soap and allowed to hang for a period of time. After the skins have been conditioned, they are placed in machines designed to rhythmically manipulate the leather so that the fibers are further loosened and made more flexible. In the final drying period, the hides are hung in vacuum-drying cabinets. When the skins are thoroughly dried, they are buffed with revolving steel cylinders covered with abrasive paper. Suede finishes are produced by passing the hides under high-speed emery wheels. At this point, glazes, dyes, and lacquers are applied. The skins are now ready to be sent to the garment factory.
Made since about 1850, was originally a strong fabric coated with a rubber composition or with a synthetic substance such as pyroxylin. Since World War II, materials made from vinyl polymers have far outstripped the earlier artificial leathers in commercial importance.
Textile is any filament, fibre or yarn that can be made into fabric or cloth and the resulting material it self. The word originally referred only to woven fabrics but now includes knitted, bonded, felted, and tufted fabrics as well. The basic raw materials used in textile production are fibres, either obtained from natural sources cotton and wool or produced from chemical substances e.g. nylon and polyester. Textiles are used for wearing apparel and for many other purposes.
The term 'Textile' is a Latin word originating from the word 'texere' which means 'to weave'. Textile refers to a flexible material comprising of a network of natural or artificial fibers, known as yarn. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting and pressing fibers together.
The history of textile is almost as old as that of human civilization and as time moves on the history of textile has further enriched itself. The discovery of machines and their widespread application in processing natural fibers was a direct outcome of the industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries. The discoveries of various synthetic fibers like nylon created a wider market for textile products and gradually led to the invention of new and improved sources of natural fiber.
Textiles can be produced from a wide range of materials .However, these materials usually comes from four primarily sources. These sources are animal, plant, mineral and synthetic.
Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest of man's technologies. The machine used for weaving is the loom. For decoration, the process of colouring yarn or the finished material is dyeing.
- Yarn formation
- Fabric formation
- Wet processing
- Singeing is the process of removing the pills and protruding fibers of the fabric coming from weaving.
- Desizing of fabric is essential to remove the sizing materials added during warping to strengthen the warp yarns.
- Bleaching is a process to make the fabric or yarn look brighter and whiter. This is achieved by oxidizing or reducing the coloring matters in to colorless form.
- Dyeing is yet another sub branch of processing with so many
a) Direct Dyeing b) Naphthol dyes c) Vat dyes
- Finishing is the final process to impart the required end to the fabric. crease resistant finish is imparted to make the fabric wrinkle free, fire proof finish is for fire resistance, anti microbial finish for odour and micro organism resist finished and so on.
- Printing is a science as well as an art. Digital printing or any photograph can be printed straightaway on the fabric.
- Fleece: a soft bulky fabric with deep pile; used chiefly for clothing.
- Net or Mesh: an open fabric woven together at regular intervals
- Nylon: a synthetic fabric
- Polyester: any of a large class of synthetic fabrics
- Taffeta: a crisp smooth lustrous fabric
- Wool: a protein fabric made from the hair of sheep
- Felt: a fabric made of compressed matted animal fibers
- Cotton: a plant fiber.
The development of high-speed sewing machinery changed the face of traditional sewing factories where one person may have worked on a single garment from start to finish. Because leather garments are considered luxury items, hand-construction by highly skilled artisans is still sought by many consumers.
Garment manufacturers typically employ designers to create patterns from which the clothing is made. Computerized machines grade the designs according to anthropometric tables which assign sizes based on body height and weight. The computer then produces patterns in a range of sizes from the original design.
The leather or fabric is placed on large tables called spreaders. Leather is usually cut one layer at a time although modern technology allows several layers of fabric to be cut simultaneously. The pattern is placed on top of the leather or textile, this is accomplished in one of two ways; tissue-paper patterns may be pinned onto the leather or the pattern may be marked with tailor's chalk. The most recent technological advance is the computerized laser beam system in which the fabric seams are vaporized rather than cut. Lining material is also cut in the same manner because it is of a much thinner weight, lining can be placed on the spreaders in multiple layers.
Jacket / Coat / Vests / Shirts / Pants / Shorts
The garment is assembled in roughly this order: the sides are stitched to the back portion, sleeve under-seams are stitched together, and the sleeves are attached to the armholes. The attachment of finishing pieces such as collars, cuffs, button-holes, buttons, zippers, and pockets varies according to the design of the Garment. Patch pockets are sewn onto the side pieces before they are stitched to the back portion, and side pockets are sewn in at the same time that the sides are attached to the back. Generally, lining material is attached to each piece before it is sewn onto the garment.
A number of pressing processes incorporating heat application, steaming, and blocking are employed to complete the transformation of garment. Buck presses equipped with controls and gauges to regulate the amount of steam and pressure are used to give the garment its distinctive shape.
*Quality Control and Final Inspection
The thoroughness of the process is designed to produce apparel that are supple and free of bacteria-causing proteins. Garment manufacturers inspect each shipment of for marks, tears, stains and imperfections. Consistent level of quality is maintained. Each garment is inspected by hand before it leaves the factory floor. The completed garment is then sheathed in plastic bags, packed into cartons, and shipped to the buyer.
Popular Material Brands
is a textile company with headquarters in Switzerland. The company specializes in the development and manufacturing of innovative fabrics and smart textile technologies.
Fabric made of Dynafil is highly tear-resistant and extremely robust. Its melting point is 290 °C. Schoeller® dynatec is a hard wearing fabric with good protective properties and a high level of stability. It is pleasant to the touch, can cope with heavy demands and has an attractive appearance. This is why it is used not only in clothing but in luggage too.
An extreme protective fabric originally developed for motorcycle racing, is A blend of Kevlar and PA fibres using the highest-quality materials which ensures extreme tear resistance, highest rub-proofing and perfect heat-friction resistance. It is used to reinforce those areas which are most at risk in the event of a fall, elbows, shoulders, knees or thumbs etc.
A waterproof film with polyurethane coating. Numerous micro pores are placed all over the polyurethane coating which shut out water from the outside, yet allow the moisture or warm steam from the body to exit. Glove liners made with HIPORA® are waterproof, windproof and breathable all at the same time and will keep hands dry and comfortable.
Manmade micro-fiber created by 3M that traps insulating air to keep you warmer. It is non-bulky, lightweight, compact resistant and durable. Warmer than foam, felt, pile for the same thickness, it insulates under damp conditions absorbing less than 1% of it's weight in water and dries quickly. It is used in clothing such as winter jackets and gloves.
A flame and temprature resistant meta-aramid material developed in the early 1960s by DuPont and first marketed in 1967. This synthetic material used in the manufacturing of flight suits and protective clothing, driving suits, gloves, shoes, helmet liners, balaclavas and undergarments.
Coolmax is a registered trademark the manufacturer,INVISTA. Clothing made from Coolmax is primarily intended to be worn during exertion, sweat can evaporate quickly so the wearer is kept dry. Other useful properties include resistance to fading, shrinking and wrinkling.
A synthetic rubber that is resistant to oils and aging. It is being widely used in wet suits and waterproof products. Extremely good weather resistance (both heat and cold) with ultraviolet stability and it offers protection against harsh chemicals like acid, oil, grease, solvent, and more.
Similar to Neoprene, this material combines breathability and cool comfort with wrist support, flexibility and impact protection to knuckles.
The highest quality synthetic leather-like substance that is commonly used in gloves, handbags etc. The Clarino fibers are thousands of times finer than silk, making it extremely tough - yet supple, dexterous, lightweight, breathable and comfortable to wear all day long. Unlike typical leather, Clarino Amara is breathable and repels wind, water, stains and can be machine washed and will not shrink, stretch or harden.
International Brands for Motorcycle, Motorbike, Motocross Clothing
Acerbis, Alpinestars, Answer Racing, Aprilia, Arai, Avon, AXO, Bell Racing, Dainese, Fieldsheer, First Racing, Firstgear, Fox Racing, GP, Harley And Davidson, Honda, Icon, Joe Rocket, Kawasaki, KTM, Moose, MSR, No Fear, Oakley, Oneal, Pro Circuit, Race Tech, Racer X, Red bull, Repsol, Shift Racing, Shoei, Sidi, Six Six One, Sumoy, Suzuki, Thor mx, Throttle, Troy Lee, UFO, Yamaha.